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Organs to go...

By Sheryl Burris Deets



Type of Activity:

  • Hands-on Activity
  • Simulation
  • Inquiry Lab
  • Authentic Assessment
  • Group/Cooperative learning

Target Audience:

  • Life Science
  • Biology
  • Anatomy/Physiology

This activity will help students understand the principles of experimental design and reinforce the steps of the scientific method. Organs to go... is a lab activity adapted for an STS unit called "SIGN FOR LIFE"...TO BE A DONOR OR NOT...THAT IS THE QUESTION. The idea for this activity was adapted from BIOLOGY DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES KIT by Mary Louise Bellamy, "Determining the Effect of Heat on Enzyme Activity."

Background

Notes for the teacher:

As the students design their experiments, be sure to provide assistance as needed, regarding...

  1. control groups/experimental groups
  2. variables (independent/dependent)
  3. effects of pH on protein
  4. diffusion of materials

Be sure NOT to tell them the information directly!
REMEMBER: Cue and Coach!

I also supplied a guest speaker from Mid America Transplant Association (Gary Anderson, Senior Organ Procurement Coordinator). Gary spoke to the students about organ donation and how they procured the organs.

Required of students:

The students will produce one document per group of the experiment. They will need two copies (one for themselves and one for the exchange group).

Preparation time:

It takes about a 1/2 hour to set out the materials.

Class time needed:

Depends... How motivated and skilled are your students in the lab? Generally, it will take the students 4 to 5 days. You may need a supplemental activity to occupy the students who complete their work early.


Lesson/Activity

Summary/Abstract:

In this activity the students will design an experiment to investigate the storage of an organ before a transplant operation is performed. Essentially, the students will be creating a "slush" type mixture to store the organ.

Materials needed:

chicken livers, pH tape, universal indicator, thermometers, scales, zip-lock sandwich bags or specimen jars with lids, graduated cylinders, distilled water, salt, sugar, sugar, corn syrup, Gator-ade, ice, etc.

Procedure/Description of Project:

Each group of students will create a "slush" type mixture to store a chicken liver. It is up to the students to decide on the ingredients of the mixture based on their knowledge of pH, diffusion, and temperature. Another crucial aspect of the lab will be for the students to choose what types of observations need to be collected. Once they have made their decision, they can determine the viability of the organ for transplantation.

Method of Evaluation:

A rubric will be used based on the components of experimental design.

Extension/Reinforcement:

The activity will reinforce the concepts of scientific method, affect of pH on proteins, diffusion of materials, variables, and control/experimental groups.


STUDENT HANDOUT

DETERMINING THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE, STORAGE SOLUTION, OR pH ON ORGAN STORAGE BEFORE TRANSPLANTATION

You will design an experiment to determine the effect of temperature, storage solution, or pH on organ storage before transplantation. Your teacher will provide you with background information about organ storage before transplantation and show you what materials may be used to perform this lab.

WRITING A HYPOTHESIS AD DESIGNING THE EXPERIMENT

DAY 1

  1. Answer the following questions about experimental procedures, then include these answers in formulating your hypothesis.
    1. Do you plan to manipulate pH, solution, or temperature?

    2. How will you change the pH, solution, or temperature?

    3. What ingredients will you put in your solution?

    4. How will you determine the results after manipulating the temperature, solution, or pH?

  2. Write your HYPOTHESIS.

  3. Give a one sentence rationale for your hypothesis.

  4. Identify the variable(s).

  5. Write a step by step procedure. REMEMBER state your directions clearly!!

  6. Collect data.

    1. What results did you expect?

    2. Did your results support or contradict your hypothesis? Explain.

    3. What were some possible sources of experimental error?

    4. How will you present your results? chart, graph, etc.

  7. On a separate sheet use the above information collected in the following format.

    • TITLE
    • PROBLEM
    • HYPOTHESIS
    • MATERIAL LIST
    • PROCEDURE
    • OBSERVATIONS
    • CONCLUSION

DAY 2

  1. After completing the lab write-up, exchange your group's write-up with another group for PEER EVALUATION.....Make any revisions necessary, make a duplicate copy, then set up your experiment.

DAY 3

  1. Make your observations and a conclusion, then turn in the lab report to your TEACHER. Exchange a copy of your lab with another group and set up their lab experiment.

DAY 4

  1. Make observations and a conclusion, then return the lab to your exchange group. DISCUSS results between the two groups.

    1. Did your results agree with the other group? Explain.

    2. How can you account for the differences/similarities?

    3. How can you revise your experiment?

RUBRIC FOR EXPERIMENTAL INQUIRY

ACCURATELY EXPLAINS THE EVENT BY USING APPROPRIATE AND ACCEPTED FACTS, CONCEPTS, AND PRINCIPLES.

4Provides an accurate explanation of the experiment. The facts, concepts, or principles used for the explanation are appropriate to the topic and accurately applied. The explanation reflects thorough and careful research or understanding.
3Provides an accurate explanation of the experiment. The facts, concepts, or principles used for the explanation are appropriate to the topic and applied accurately, with no significant errors.
2Explains the experiment but misapplies or omits some facts, concepts, or principles that are important for understanding the topic.
1Leaves out key facts, concepts, or principles in explaining the experiment, or does to use appropriate facts, concepts, or principles to explain the topic.

MAKES A LOGICAL PREDICTION OR HYPOTHESIS BASED ON THE FACTS, CONCEPTS, OR PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING THE EXPLANATION.

4Makes a prediction that reflects insight into the character of the experiment. The prediction is entirely appropriate to the facts, concepts, or principles used to explain topic.
3Makes a prediction that follows from the facts, concepts, or principles used to explain the topic. The prediction that cannot be verified.
2Makes a prediction that reflects a misunderstanding of some aspects of the facts, concepts, or principles used to explain the topic, or makes a prediction that presents difficulties for verification.
1Makes a prediction that cannot be verified.

SETS UP AND CARRIES OUT AN EXPERIMENT THAT EFFECTIVELY TESTS THE PREDICTION OR HYPOTHESIS.
4Sets up and carries out an experiment that is a complete and valid test of the prediction and addresses all important questions raised by the prediction. The experiment is designed to provide complete and accurate data and a model of the experimental design.
3Sets up and carries out an experiment that is a fair test of the prediction and addresses the most important questions raised by the prediction. The experiment provides accurate data for evaluation.
2Sets up and carries out an experiment that addresses some important aspects of the prediction, but omits others. The design of the experiment produces some errors in data collection or interpretation.
1Sets up and carries out an experiment that does not test the central features of the prediction. The experimental design is seriously flawed and the collection of data is unlikely.

EFFECTIVELY EVALUATES THE OUTCOMES OF THE EXPERIMENT IN TERMS OF THE ORIGINAL EXPLANATION.

4Provides a complete explanation of the outcome of the experiment and does so in terms of relevant facts, concepts, or principles. Provides insights into the nature of the topic studied of the facts, concepts, and principles used to explain it.
3Provides a complete explanation of the outcome of the experiment with no important errors. Presents the explanation in terms of the relevant facts, concepts, or principles.
2Provides a general explanation of the experiment but omits one or two important aspects or may not effectively relate the outcome to the facts, concepts, or principles used to generate the prediction.
1Provides an inaccurate, highly flawed explanation of how the outcome relates to the original explanation.


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