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Discovery, Chance and
the Scientific Method

Selected References

Access Excellence Classic Collection


World Wide Web

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine ( 1901 - ) The Nobel Prize Internet Archive provides a list of recipients of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine beginning with the 1901 prize of Emil Adolf von Behring for his work on serum therapy and its application against diphtheria, and ending with the 1994 prize of Alfred G. Gillman and Martin Rodbell for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells. The list includes both the recipient(s) name and field of study.

Printed Articles/Books:

The Process of Science
  1. Judson, Horace Freeland. The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology. Simon and Schuster, New York/ London, 1979. The author aims to reconstruct the circumstances, psychological and intellectual, of each discovery - to capture the moments and movements of understanding.

  2. Bronowski, J. The Ascent of Man. Little, Brown and Company, Boston/Toronto. 1973. A poet/physicist's view of the relation of scientific and artistic endeavors by humans across the ages.

  3. Judson, Horace Freeland. The Search for Solutions. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York. 1980. An engrossing narrative that critically looks at the transformation of human society by science for better or worse.

  4. Ziman, John. Reliable Knowledge: An Exploration of the Grounds for Belief in Science. Cambridge University Press, 1978. The author, a physicist, describes his views about the way scientists really work, think, and interact.

  5. Lakatos, Imre. The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes. Cambridge University Press, 1978. In this series of papers, Lakatos develops the idea that vital, productive science is characterized not exactly by the individual great theories that get generally public recognition but rather by the bundles of theories, major and ancillary, that attract and focus the work of many scientists.

  6. Kuhn, Thomas S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd Ed. University of Chicago Press, 1970. Kuhn does not view science as a steady, cumulative acquisition of knowledge that is portrayed in textbooks. Rather, it is a series of peaceful interludes punctuated by intellectually violent revolutions... in each of which one conceptual world view is replaced by another.

Discovery and Uses of Penicillin

  1. Yair Aharonowitz, Gerald Cohen. The Microbiological Production Of Pharmaceuticals . September, 1981. Scientific American. page 140. Abstract: The introduction of penicillin opened up a new era in medicine. Now microorganisms manufacture not only a host of other antibiotics but also vitamins, hormones, alkaloids, antitumor drugs and interferons.

  2. Anthony H. Rose. "New Penicillins." March, 1961. Scientific American. page 66. Abstract: By altering the groups of atoms that are attached to the "core" of the penicillin molecule, chemists have produced penicillins that are effective against resistant strains of microorganisms.

  3. Kenneth B. Raper. "The Progress Of Antibiotics." April, 1952. Scientific American. page 49. Abstract: In the decade since the first patient was treated with penicillin, some 300 of these substances have been discovered. Only a few have come into wide clinical use, but they have revolutionized medicine.

Luigi Galvani

  1. H. B. Steinbach. "Animal Electricity." February, 1950. Scientific American. Abstract: A phenomenon that did much to awaken our early investigations of electricity is still of great interest to biologists.

  2. Boller F. Keefe NC. Zoccolotti P. "Luigi Galvani, Body Electricity, and The Galvanic Skin Response'." Neurology. 39(6):868-70, 1989 Jun. Abstract: A historical look at the research of Luigi Galvani.

  3. Bick EM. The classic. The effects of artificial electricity on muscular motion. Aloysio Luigi Galvani. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research. 88:2-10, 1972. A look at the classic article...

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