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Vaccines--How and Why?
Selected References

World Wide Web

DNA Vaccine Web. This interesting site contains references on the production and administration of a wide variety of vaccines.

CDC Adult Immunization Action Plan This Plan describes five major goals for adult immunization in the United States.

CDC Travel Information Page. Planning a trip? Check out this Web site to find out about any required immunizations.

Books and articles

Dixon, B. 1995. "The third vaccine revolution." Bio/Technology 13:420. A look at the development of vaccines in today's laboratories.

G. Nigel Godson. May, 1985. "Molecular Approaches To Malaria Vaccines." Scientific American. 252(5):52-59. Abstract: Study of genes encoding the molecules of the malaria parasite's outer coat reveals a class of proteins forming repeated antigenic sites. They may serve as decoys deflecting the immune response.

Lerner, R.A., February, 1983. "Synthetic Vaccines." Scientific American. 248(2):66-74. Abstract: A short chain of amino acids assembled in the laboratory to mimic a site on the surface of a viral protein can give rise to antibodies of predetermined specificity that confer immunity against the virus.

Robbins, A., Freeman, P. November, 1988. "Obstacles To Developing Vaccines For The Third World." Scientific American. 259(5):126-33. Abstract: Six vaccines are already in use there. Many others could be produced within 10 years. Yet those who have the know-how to make the needed vaccines have lacked incentives to apply it.

Winkler, W.F., Bogel, K. June, 1992. "Control of Rabies in Wildlife." Scientific American. 266(6):86-92. Abstract: A revolutionary approach now being tested in Europe and North America is the offspring of a research effort that began modestly in an Atlanta laboratory some 30 years ago.

Carpi, J. October, 1995. "A Pox on the Pox-New vaccine raises hopes and doubts." Scientific American. 273(4):32. Abstract: Earlier this year--nearly 40 years after the country learned that the first of two polio vaccines would end the epidemics that were crippling the nation--researchers reported that they could conquer another childhood scourge: chicken pox. But unlike the announcement that polio could be prevented, which was hailed as a medical triumph, news of the chicken pox vaccine was greeted with a dose of skepticism.

Burton, D., P. Artymiuk, and G. Ford. "Death by Antibody." April 22, 1989. New Scientist. Abstract: How antibodies trigger destruction of foreign cells.

Patlak, M. "The Fickle Virus." February 1989. Discover. Abstract: The problems of developing and AIDS vaccine.


From Encyclopedia of Immunology.Editied by I.M. Roitt & P.J. Delves, Academic Press, San Diego, 1992.


TypeCurrentUnder Trial
Live, attenuatedB C G V. choleaa
S. typhi a
InactivatedV. cholerae
B. pertussis
S. typhi
V. cholerae plus subunita
M. leprae
SubunitH. influenzae
N. meningitidis
S. pneumoniae
S. typhi
H. influenza
DT. conjugate
ToxoidTetanus, diphtheria
aAdministered orally


TypeCurrentUnder Trial
Live, attenuatedVaccinia
Yellow Fever
Polio a
Varicelle zoster
Hepatitis A
Rota a
Japanese encephalitis
Polio a
Japanese encephalitis
Hepatitis A
SubunitHepatitis B, influenza
Administered orally

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