Moderator: Dr. Girard received all of his formal academic training at the University Connecticut, finishing his Ph.D. in microbiology in 1969. He then joined the faculty there as Assistant Professor of Microbiology and was a member of the first faculty of the University of Connecticut Health Center which included both dental and medical schools. He served there from 1968 to 1973. In 1973, he joined the Pfizer Central Research Group and he's been involved in primary discovery and development of new antibacterial agents. He's been a significant contributor to the discovery and pre-clinical development of four of Pfizer's antibiotics. In addition to his laboratory research, he does a lot of outreach including a volunteer teacher at several local community schools, high school, middle school and grammar school in Connecticut. So he is part of the Pfizer team. As we noted Pfizer was generous in not only helping to bring the Microbes exhibit here to the Academy but also for sponsoring today's BioForum and providing us with the expertise Dr. Girard has and for a presentation today that's called "Microbes: their diversity, antibacterial targets and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance." Dr. Arthur Girard.
Girard: Now, I'm briefly going to go over many areas, that other speakers have covered. I'm really the bacteriologist of the crew. So I'm out of the higher protists area. Although I will mention and show you a little bit about Penicillium. I'll talk very, very briefly about yeast and then we'll get into bacteria. I'm going to talk primarily, that is the meat of the talk will be on resistance to antimicrobial agents, specifically antibacterial agents. Now, that's been a topic that most all of you, whether you want to be exposed to or not have seen in the news media. So we'll go through that. Hopefully, later on, you'll have some questions about this. I'll then talk a little bit about what the intent there, how to control that, that whole process. Then finally, I'll give you a very quick view of a couple studies I did while we were in the process of discovery and development of two new antimicrobials. They've been out in the world now for quite awhile.