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The other thing that we are interested in looking at was how this relates to color patterns.

We also wanted to examine what happened if we included characteristics of their color patterns in their phylogeny and how that affected what we were able to find about their evolutionary relationship. This was a phylogeny that we produced without any characteristics about the color of those organisms. Then when we added characteristics about their color patterns, we wanted to compare what phylogeny we would get. Basically, when we added the color characteristics, we had the same basic groups, but we had greater resolution. So there was more phylogenetic signal by using the characteristics from the color patterns. So therefore we weren't using the color patterns to then look at color patterns because basically when we took out all of the color characteristics we got the same general phylogeny; there were no major differences in organisms sliding from one of these two branches to the other.

If we look in a little bit more detail at the members of this group that are found in the eastern Pacific and the Atlantic, this is the group that's found in the eastern Pacific. All the rest of the members of this group are found in the Atlantic. What do they look like? Well, one of the things that we found is that all of the members of that monophyletic sister clade of the rest of that monophyletic group all have a blue body color. This is a representative species that's found in the Strait of Gibraltar off of the southern coast of Spain. Well, if you also go to the southern coast of Spain you find that there are other representatives of this monophyletic clade. In fact, these are three different species all found within a few meters of each other in the same dive site in the Strait of Gibraltar. You can see they have very similar color patterns.

The other thing that we wanted to then ask in the case of the eastern Pacific species where we had very good resolution of how those four species were related to each other, was what did sister species look like? And, if we add these two sister species here, how did those two sister species appear in their color pattern, what did the sister species to those two look like and what did the sister species of the other three look like? If we start up at the top and work down, we find that there's this species called Hypselodoris ghiselini which is a species that's very common off the coast of Baja California that has this color pattern. It also has a very obnoxious repugnantorial chemical that's unique to it called ghiselinine. If any of you are familiar with my colleague Mike Ghiselin who's here at the Academy, he's very proud that a species named after him has such a noxious chemical. He feels that it fits in well with his personality.

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