World Wide Web Resources
By G. Grafton
This is a fun page descibing the principle stages of cider fermentation. Details are given on the following subjects: An overview of the cider making process, a discussion of the characteristics of the apple juice, the microbiology of the process, the changes in the composition of the cider during fermentation, and finally a description of how to make your own cider. A great classroom activity!
Making Simple Fermented Beverages
1993 by Eric C. Garrison
This is meant to be a simple guide to basic fermentation procedures, and is not a comprehensive manual. Most of the material is based on personal experience from the author making meads, wines, and ciders.The intent is to use as little special equipment or ingredients as possible, using whenever possible those things easily obtainable at a grocery store or hardware store. Some recommendations are made for things that may be bought at a beer or wine making supply store, but all of these suggestions are optional.
How To Brew Your First Beer
1994 by John J. Palmer
Brewing a beer is a combination of several general processes. First is the mixing of ingredients and bringing the solution (wort) to a boil. Second is the cooling of the wort to the fermentation temperature. Next the wort is transferred to the fermenter and the yeast is added. After fermentation, the raw beer is siphoned off the yeast sediment and bottled with a little extra sugar to provide the carbonation. But there are three important things to keep in mind every time you brew: Cleanliness, Preparation and Good Record Keeping. Lots of good information including a nice glossary.
G. Tortora, B. Funke and C. Case. Microbiology: An Introduction. 5th ed.
Menlo Park, CA: Bejamin/Cummings, 1995
J. Ingraham and C. Ingraham. Introduction to Microbiology. Belmont, CA:Wadsworth, 1995.
T.D. Brock, M.T. Madison, J. M. Martinko and J. Parker.Biology of Microorganisms. 7th ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall, 1994.
Fermentation, Respiration and Enzyme Specificity: A Simple Device and Key Experiments with Yeast by Larry Reinking And Others. American Biology Teacher v56, n3, p164-68, Mar 1994.
Using graphs and diagrams, the authors describe a simple fermentation chamber and provide key experiments that can be used in the classroom to give students meaningful insight into metabolic processes.
Microbe Phobia and Kitchen Microbiology by Robert P. Williams, Alan L. Gillen. American Biology Teacher v53, n1, p10-11, Jan 1991.
The authors present an exercise designed to help students overcome the misconception that most microbes make people sick. The activity helps students of all ages understand the important benefits of microbes such as in making bread, soy sauce, cheese, and wine. The role of microorganisms in processing cocoa and coffee and growing plants is also discussed.
Some Problems of Industrial Scale-Up by A.T. Jackson. Journal of Biological Education v19, n1, p48-52, Spr 1985
Scientific ideas of the biological laboratory are turned into economic realities in industry only after several problems are solved. Economics of scale, agitation, heat transfer, sterilization of medium and air, product recovery, waste disposal, and future developments are discussed using aerobic respiration as the example in the scale-up procedure.
How-to-Do-It: A Simple Demonstration of Fermentation by William J. Yurkiewicz And Others. American Biology Teacher v51, n3, p168-69, Mar 1989.
Described is a simple demonstration of fermentation. The materials needed, the basic experimental set-up, and various projects are outlined. Included are a diagram of an apparatus for measuring carbon dioxide production and a table showing typical results of the effect of pH on fermentation.
How-to-Do-It: Apparatus and Experimental Design for Measuring Fermentation Rates in Yeast by Robert Tatina. American Biology Teacher v51, n1, p35-39, Jan 1989.
Describes an apparatus that facilitates the quantitative study of fermentation in yeast by allowing simultaneous measurements of fermentation rates in several treatments and a control. Explains a laboratory procedure in which the apparatus is used. Several suggestions for further investigations are included.
An Experiment in Autotrophic Fermentation: Microbial Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide by Kerry L. Sublette. Chemical Engineering Education v23, n1, p32-37, Win 1989.
Described is an experiment which uses an autotrophic bacterium to anaerobically oxidize hydrogen sulfide to sulfate in a batch-stirred tank reactor. Discusses background information, experimental procedure, and sample results of this activity.
The Use of Plastic Lemonade Bottles as Fermenter Reaction Vessels by David Walker and Barry Howard. Journal of Biological Education v22, n1, p5-6, Spr 1988.
Describes the construction and uses of a low cost fermenter reaction vessel which is suitable for laboratory growth of microorganisms by continuous and batch cultures from plastic soft drink bottles. Lists materials, discusses modifications that can be made and gives examples of use.
What Fermenter? by John Terry. Journal of Biological Education v21, n3, p163-66 Fall 1987.
Discusses the feasibility of using fermenters in secondary school laboratories. Includes discussions of equipment, safety, and computer interfacing. Describes how a simple fermenter could be used to simulate large-scale processes. Concludes that, although teachers and technicians will require additional training, the prospects for biotechnology in schools are very exciting.
The Energy Relationships of Corn Production and Alcohol Fermentation by Thomas E. Van Koevering And Others. Journal of Chemical Education v64, n1, p11-14 Jan 1987.
Proposes that the production of alcohol from corn be used as a practical application of scientific principles that deal with energy transformations. Discusses the solar energy available for growth, examining the utilization of solar energy by plants. Describes the conversion of corn to alcohol, with suggestions for classroom and laboratory study.
Algae, Electronics and Ginger Beer: Explorations in Biotechnology at the Governor's School by John Wells And Others. TIES: Technology, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship for Students n4, p27-32, Mar-Apr 1992. TIES Magazine, 3219 Arch St., Philadelphia, PA 19104.
Describes a variety of projects that were used in a summer program for gifted high school students to help teach biotechnical concepts and applications. Presents six projects utilizing algae as tool for solving problems. Also presents five production-oriented projects with hydroponics and fermentation as research and development themes.
Projector Center. What Is Biotechnology? by Bill Belzer, Christine L. Case. American Biology Teacher v52, n6, p376-78, Sep 1990.
Presented is a menu designed to illustrate some classical examples of fermentation. This may be used to discuss biotechnology from a technological perspective. Other examples of biotechnology used in the foods industry are described.
Biotechnology Laboratory Methods by Robert H. Davis, Dhinakar S. Kompala. Chemical Engineering Education v23, n3, p182-87, Sum 1989
Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.
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