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Biotechnology: Present and Future





Legend:

Areas of applied biotechnology:

In 1885, a scientist named Roux demonstrated embryonic chick cells could be kept alive outside an animal's body. For the next hundred years, advances in cell tissue culture have provided fascinating glimpses into many different areas such as biological clocks and cancer therapy.

Monoclonal antibodies are new tools to detect and localize specific biological molecules. In principle, monoclonal antibodies can be made against any macromolecule and used to locate, purify or even potentially destroy a molecule as for example with anticancer drugs.

Molecular biology is useful in many fields. DNA technology is utilized in solving crimes. It also allows searchers to produce banks of DNA, RNA and proteins, while mapping the human genome. Tracers are used to synthesize specific DNA or RNA probes, essential to localizing sequences involved in genetic disorders.

With genetic engineering, new proteins are synthesized. They can be introduced into plants or animal genomes, producing a new type of disease resistant plants, capable of living in inhospitable environments (i.e. temperature and water extremes,...). When introduced into bacteria, these proteins have also produced new antibiotics and useful drugs.

Techniques of cloning generate  large quantities of pure human proteins, which are used to treat diseases like diabetes. In the future, a resource bank for rare human proteins or other molecules is a possibility. For instance, DNA sequences which are modified to correct a mutation, to increase the production of a specific protein or to produce a new type of protein can be stored . This technique will be probably play a key role in gene therapy.
 

Adapted from: BIO. "Biotechnology in Perspective." Washington, D.C.: Biotechnology Industry Organization, 1990.
 

 
 


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